Italian Japonism: a weighted analysis or a trend?

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Just less than ten years before the first performance of the well-known opera by Giacomo Puccini, Madame Buttefly, another Italian composer presented his way to see the East. The Mascagni’s opera called Iris was the first Italian opera set in Japan, performed for the first time in Rome in 1898.  The story, written by the famous and active writer of Opera’s texts Luigi Illica, is originally based on a Japanese legend and inspired by Hokusai’s ukiyo-e The Dream of the Fisherman’s Wife. Iris is a young innocent Japanese girl who lives in Fujiyama with her blind father. The first scene starts with the bright sunrise hitting the beautiful girl, woken by a nightmare in which monsters sought to injure her doll. Eventually she draws attention of a noble called Osaka, who wants to possess her. Helped by Kyoto, a questionable brothel keeper, he tries to enchant Iris with a marionette show and finally conducts her, fascinated and still confused, to Yoshiwara, district of pleasure and perdition. After several failed attempts act to seduce the young girl, he becomes impatient: in her purity, she remain unconscious of the significance of his words and caresses. At first she thought he was Tor, the sun god, because of his brilliant attire, but he tells her he is Pleasure. Since one day, in the temple, a priest told her that pleasure and death were one, the words of Osaka frightens her. He finally leaves her and Kyoto turns her into a “ghèshua”, showed in the “Green House”. Her father finds Iris and unaware of everything curses his daughter, who, shamed, leaps from a window into the sewer below. Dying, she praises the sanctity of the Sun, which embraces her with its warmth and light before she was absorbed by the blooming Nature.

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Iris was composed during the most active period of the Italian and European lyric world: a century of constant changes not only of musical trends but artistic in general[1], influenced by historical events and international relations. The Romantic period, characterized by the will of the composers to convey strong messages of social and political unity, trying to teach a moral lesson, and the realism/naturalism in which the main aid was to depict the daily life of common people, especially the poverty of the south Italy’s people. At the end of the XIX century another movement developed in contrast to the previous one, the Decadents: all hopes of redemption were abandoned together with optimism.

The audience of the Opera at that time embraced all social levels: since it described changing social conditions of all kinds of people, it became a social and costume phenomenon, drawing attention of the upper class as well as the middle and lower class. Editors and composers paid attention to the trends of the period and tried to satisfy the expectations of the audience.

That was the period of colonialism as well, and even if western countries already knew the East, thanks to the shipments of Portuguese missionaries two centuries before, it was in the XIX century that the idea of “Orientalism” spread. As it is said by Gilles de Van, the more general term of “Exoticism” is nothing else but the notion of the difference; a process of knowledge that transform into a metaphor of desire as a wish to escape from a unsatisfactory bourgeois civilization as it was developing at that time. This dissatisfaction gave rise to boredom and the desire for a more attractive elsewhere. The fact that were mostly man (writers, musicians, literates and travelers) searching for exotic woman, can be seen as a reaction for bourgeois Puritanism to the moral strictness of the period. The more brutal but healthier energy of unknown countries were more stimulating to the imagination.[2] In the areas of literature and opera (and by extension, of librettos) the shift was very rapid: spatiotemporal vagueness was replaced by a more precise citing of local with details of local colors; at the same time characters became more individualized and described with signs of their place of origin. However, a traveler as a writer or a musician was not necessarily an anthropologist and could observe behavior without being aware of its historical and social contexts. Hence, each country or city acquired a certain number of clichés which made it seem exotic[3].

The opera of Mascagni is not the first Oriental based work of the century in the western world: Saint-Saens’s La Princesse jaune (1872), Gilbert and Sullivan’s Mikado (1885) with the traditional japanese song Ton’yarebushi, Pierre Loti’s novel Madame Chrysathème (1893) are just some of those which touched on Japan.[4] However, compared with others, and especially with Madame Butterfly, Iris seems to be the opera less involved in Orientalism, or at least, that one which needs more efforts to see or recognize Japan in it, starting from the title.

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Reading the title, in fact, we cannot imagine that it is a Japanese based opera: the Iris is a common flower in Italy too and although it has symbolism also in Japan, this flower is not automatically associated with it. It is nevertheless significant if analyzed in the period context: the iris was a flower important in the Japanese decorative arts and became almost the emblematic image of art nouveau, so that the Japanese setting offered a rich vocabulary of visual and poetic images and the opera of Mascagni and Illica can be considered as the only Italian art nouveau opera as well. According to Illica’s description of his libretto as a Japanese subject taken from the legend “The girl in love with flowers”, even some eminent scholar of Japanese studies as Donald Keene struggled to find the Japanese origin of the story: it does not seem there are similar in any readily available collection of Japanese legend or folk tales, even if there were many phony Japanese stories in circulation at the time.[5] While Illica did efforts to create a Japanese atmosphere citing references to shamisen, kamuro and Edo’s Shimonoseki market, he had no truly interest in recreating an authentic Japanese environment. Moreover, the decision to name his leading characters with the Japanese most known cities at that time, Osaka and Kyoto, rather than give them credible Japanese names, and the pronunciation富士山(Fujisan) as “Fujiyama”, could be confused with ignorance and offhand gesture. However, it could be suggested that the writer, who travelled to Japan, although he was not a specialist, knew some basic aspects of Japan. That is why Mallach consider the choice as a deliberate reminder that Iris’s Japan is symbolic, metaphorical land, not to be confused with the real thing[6], considering also that originally the opera’s title was The Japanese girl (La Giapponese). Mascagni as well turned on into the study of Japanese music determined to reproduce with music the Land of the rising sun’s colors. His words reflect his ardor in the work of the opera: “I have had typical Japanese music up to here…I am thoroughly Japanesed (sono tutto ingiapponesato). [..] I have studied that type of music a great deal, and I believe that I’ve caught its spirit[7]”. He also had the chance to see and touch Japanese instruments he had never seen before from the collection of Kraus, an Australian writer interested in Oriental studies. He came out of there “with head on fire, with heart full of a strange emotion. […]. I know that in front of that splendid mass of Japanese instruments I glimpsed something grand, solemn, that won me over completely (25 October 1897)”.[8] However, his interest in Japanese music was limited to the creation of musical color reflected in the entrance of the puppet show in the first act and the opening of the second, where violin, flute and harp conjure up a mysterious oriental air, using the shamisen only as a visual decoration. There are no precise statements about it, but it can be assumed that the goal of Mascagni was to make the viewer feel unusual appearances as peculiar timbre of what is geographically distant from the Western audience, to involve him in the world where the small Iris lives. Other Japanese elements present in the opera are the gidayu (the style of chanting with shamisen) used in the puppet show section, and the nagauta (traditional Japanese music which accompanies the kabuki theater) as accompaniment for dance that makes use of a flute and three drums. But even in these cases there is not a realistic transposition of traditional Japanese music and culture because, despite the melodic idea and its treatment are well managed, no geisha would never dance the waltz acted from Beauty and the Vampire in Mascagni’s opera, not only out of shame but also because the ternary division was unknown to the Japanese at that time.[9]

It can be assumed than that setting the opera in Japan served many purposes considering that to Europe of XIX century, Japan was still more an imaginary and mysterious land that part of the modern world. That exotic setting allowed to make the story free of realistic associations and audience to free the imagination. This was probably a response to industrialized world’s censorship and permitted the downplaying of violence and struggle against the status quo. The intent of Opera composers was to move their audiences’ sensibility, make them reflect on the illusions and deception of the world they lived in. The exoticism metaphor of reality satisfies the double need of distancing while sending back to audience a reflection of their society problems and conflicts.[10]

From the reports of the time it seems that this aim has been achieved since audience (composed by all social classes), in contrast to critics, acclaimed the opera despite having been confused by the last act, with strange and far from western classical melodies atonale note. Iris soon won a substantial following in Italy and in Latin America, where Italian Opera was already well-known and where Italian artists, singers went in search of new fortune.  Although the conservative audiences of fin de siècle was captivated by a new and different opera, to today’s audiences it clearly belongs to its time and place, no longer part of the Italian repertory.

In Japan Iris is still today almost unknown, set up for the first time in 1984 and few others representations in 2008 and 2011, with the intent to give credit to Belle Époque Italian’s opera but with an almost different result as the original one presents many recited parts in Italian language which Japanese artists struggle to memorize.

Concluding this analysis, it can be said that Iris loses its value if taken out from its historical and social context in which this opera represented symbolically a visionary and imaginary world (as Japan was considered in XIX century with its many cultural cliché) that became real first of all in the minds of audience, consisting of people who want to share new ideas and social models.

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[1] Si bemolle – http://www.sibemolle.it/materie/storia_musica/tesi/tesi_22.aspx

[2]Cf. Gilles de Van, William Ashbrook (translator), “Fin de Siècle Exoticism and the meaning of the Far away, in Letteratura, musica e teatro al tempo di Ruggero Leoncavallo, Sonzogno, 1993, p. 79.

[3] Cf. Gilles de Van, William Ashbrook (translator), “Fin de Siècle Exoticism and the meaning of the Far away, in Letteratura, musica e teatro al tempo di Ruggero Leoncavallo, Sonzogno, 1993.

[4] Cf. Arthur Groos, “Cio-cio-san and Sadayakko: Japanese music-theater in Madama Butterfly”, Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 54, N.1 (Spring, 1999), pp. 43-44.

[5] Cf. Alan Mallach, Pietro Mascagni and his Operas, UPNE, 2002, pp. 124-125.

[6] Cf. Alan Mallach , Pietro Mascagni and his Operas, UPNE, 2002, pp. 125-126.

[7] Cf. Allan Mallach, Pietro Mascagni and his Operas, UPNE, 2002, pp. 114.

[8] Cf. Michele Girardi, Esotismo e dramma in Iris e Madama Butterfly, Atti della giornata di studi (Viareggio, 3 agosto 1995), Lucca, Pacini, 1996, pp. 37-54.

[9] Cf. Michele Girardi, Esotismo e dramma in Iris e Madama Butterfly, Atti della giornata di studi (Viareggio, 3 agosto 1995), Lucca, Pacini, 1996, pp. 37-54.

[10] Cf. Gilles de Van, William Ashbrook (translator) , “Fin de Siècle Exoticism and the meaning of the Far away, in Letteratura, musica e teatro al tempo di Ruggero Leoncavallo, Sonzogno, 1993.

Annunci

~Sbocceranno i fiori e sarà primavera~

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Si dice che fin dai tempi più remoti i giapponesi siano sensibili al cambiamento delle stagioni, associando umori e sensazioni e adattandosi ad esse. Un’isola dalle temperature clementi e dalla natura rigogliosa, dove per vivere non c’era bisogno di combattere.Perciò questo popolo ha basato la sua esistenza sull’agricoltura, in una terra dove era naturale coltivare lo spirito di collaborazione reciproca.

Nella credenza che tra tifoni e piogge abbondanti di una natura severa risieda la forza di molti dèi, adorano tale natura, ne hanno rispetto e timore.

È dall’antichità che i giapponesi esprimono le delicate sensazioni che le stagioni gli ispirano attraverso poesie, haiku e dipinti, sviluppando termini ed espressioni capaci di esprimere a parole ogni piccolo cambiamento della natura e dell’animo umano.

 

Divisione delle stagioni

Osservando attentamente il ripetersi ad ogni anno delle stagioni, la gente ha elaborato una grande saggezza per esprimere nel dettaglio questi cambiamenti, dividendo le stagioni in 24 parti e ulteriori 72 mutamenti climatici.

Il vecchio calendario lunisolare (太陰太陽暦 – Taiin taiyōreki), chiamato anche Kyūreki 旧暦 ha origini antichissime, trasmesso dalla Cina in Giappone nel VII secolo.

Ma cosa sono concretamente queste 24 piccole stagioni? In pratica si basano sul movimento del Sole e sulla sua longitudine eclittica che hanno portato alla classica divisione in due solstizi (estate e inverno) e due equinozi (primavera e autunno) che a loro volta vengono suddivisi in due parti, segnando l’inizio e la metà di ogni stagione (yotsudate – 四立). Si creano così 8 divisioni che vengono divise ulteriormente in 3 parti a cicli di 15 giorni (quindi ogni stagione risulta avere 6 divisioni), creando i 24 sekki (二十四節気).

stagioni giappo(Immagine tratta da: http://www.gaspo.ne.jp/portal/lives/43)

Inoltre, ognuna delle 24 parti viene suddivisa in 3 in base ai cambiamenti climatici, portando alla creazione di 72 spazi di tempo di 5 giorni l’uno.

Ad ogni periodo vengono associate parole che indicano la condizione del tempo meteorologico e degli esseri viventi e nel tempo sono state codificate i Saijiki 歳時記, le “Antologie delle quattro stagioni”, dove sono raccolti dai 15000 ai 25000 kigo 季語, le parole delle stagioni, a raccontare di un universo che cambia in continuazione.

 

 Cambiano le stagioni e le emozioni

A cominciare dal cibo, il cambiamento delle stagioni influenza la vita e la cultura giapponese a 360°. Come per il frappè di Starbucks ai fiori di ciliegio, tanto per dirne una, gli ingredienti di stagione vengono usati solo in quello specifico periodo, gustandone il sapore con gli occhi e col palato, mentre il pensiero volge verso la stagione che sta per arrivare.

DSC_0863Le case tradizionali si adattano ai cambiamenti stagionali e al clima caldo e umido, “incastonate” naturalmente nel paesaggio creando armonia e non distruzione, dove il cuore e la mente possono arricchirsi di energie positive. Gli animi si calmano ascoltando il suono della pioggia battente sui tetti di legno e lasciandosi accarezzare dal vento che come un dragone si destreggiava con delicatezza attraverso gli shōji, le porte scorrevoli di carta.

In primavera, quando la natura si sveglia, anche il cuore comincia ad agitarsi. Nell’abbondanza della piena fioritura dei ciliegi anche gli esseri umani gioiscono e in empatia con essa festeggiano allegramente bevendo e cantando. In autunno invece l’animo si calma, perdendosi tra i colori accesi della maestosa morte della natura nel ciclo infinito dell’esistenza. Nella filosofia orientale, specie nello Zen, gli esseri umani e l’Universo non sono soltanto connessi imprescindibilmente, ma sono una cosa sola, forme diverse di un’unica sostanza. Il corpo fisico degli esseri umani è un microcosmo che riflette la struttura del Cosmo infinito.  Immagine

Si dice che al giorno d’oggi i giapponesi, soprattutto i giovani stiano dimenticando l’importanza della natura e l’interconnessione con l’Universo. Tuttavia, nella ciclicità annuale ogni mese i treni sono pieni poster pubblicitari di festival legati a piante e animali di quella stagione. Il festival delle ortensie アジサイ (ajisai) a giugno, il festival delle lucciole蛍 (hotaru) a luglio, il festival delle rose バラ (bara), il festival delle ipomoea 朝顔 (asagao), il festival dei crisantemi 菊 (kiku) si susseguono uno dopo l’altro in un tripudio di colori. Di questi ho avuto la fortuna di partecipare al festival delle lucciole in un parco di Yokohama. Nonostante non fosse molto conosciuto era pienissimo di gente. Adulti e bambini hanno aspettato diligenti sulla riva del ruscello fino al calare del sole e nello stesso istante in cui la prima timida lucciola ha fatto la sua comparsa, tutti, grandi e piccini avevano dipinto in volto la sorpresa e l’eccitazione dello spettacolo che la natura stava per offrirci.

日本人の季節感

  1. はじめに

日本人は古来より季節の変わりに対して敏感であり、季節から何を感じたり連想したりして、優れた感覚を持っているとよく言われている。世界に例のない温暖な島国なので、自然が豊かであるし、生きる糧を得るのは難しくなくて、争う必要がない。

だから、同胞は互いに助け合う精神を自然に培ってきて、農耕民族として存在してきた。豊かな自然の中で四季が移ろうということは、大雨や台風などの様々な厳しい自然の生命力に神々が宿ると信じて、そんな自然を祀り、敬い、畏れてきた。昔から日本人は季節への濃やかな感触は詩文や俳句や絵画に表していたので、季語を伝え広めて、歳時記という書物も書いた。

このレポートは、「季節の分別」と「季節による日本人の変化」という二つの部分に分割し、昔から現在まで毎年の季節の変化と一緒に日本人の生活や気持ちは深い変化をするという目的がある。

  1. 季節の分別

細かい季節変化が毎年繰り返され、 悠久の時を過ごすうちに人々は二十四節季七十二候という季節の変化を暦という分別で微妙に言い表す素晴らしい知恵を生み出した。

和文化研究家の三浦康子は多くの国と違って日本の暦には大きく分けて、太陽の運行をもとにした「太陽暦」と月の満ち欠けをもとにした「太陰暦」と太陽と月の両方を取り入れた「太陰太陽暦」があると説明した[i]。この古い暦を旧暦と呼ぶようになって、古代中国を起源としており、七世紀に日本に伝えられた。二十四節気は具体的にどのようなことだろうか。絵1を見ると二十四節気は太陽の動きをもとにしていると分かる。太陽が移動する天球上の道を黄道といって、それを二十四等分したものである。黄道を夏至と冬至の「二至」で二等分になり、春分と秋分の「二分」を加えて4等分することである。それぞれの仲間に立春、立夏、立秋、立冬の「四立」を入れて「八節」とする。十五日ずつに三等分し「二十四節気」とする。

さらに、それぞれの節気も三等分し、時候を表したものが「七十二候」になる。それぞれの節気と候に天候や生き物の様子を表す名前がつけられている。

  1. 季節による日本人の変化

3.1 生活に影響

季節の変化は食べ物から始め、日本文化全体に影響する。スターバックの桜フラップチーノひとつとっても、旬の食材をその季節に食べ、味覚を目や舌で味わい、これからやってくる季節に想いを馳せる。

住宅の場合は高温多湿の風土に適したように建てられ、四季の変化に適応できた。自然によりそって生き、共生と共感するようにして、主張を捨て、心を豊かにしてくれていると感じる。そんな昔の日本家屋は自然を遮断せずに四季を楽しめる住まいだった。日本の建築の研究所サイトで書いてあるように自然から取った建築材料のおかげで雨や風の音を楽しみながら心を落ち着かせるのは、日本の住宅の特徴だったのである[ii]

3.2 気持ちの変化

春に目覚める自然のように人間の心も乱れ始めて、大騒ぎになる。感情の過剰を取り出すために、喜んでにぎやかな花見をする。逆に秋に自然は死んでいるので、人々もその気持ちを持って、紅葉する時は静かに一人で葉の変わっている色を見ながら落ち着くことができる。それは人間の命の変化を表すと言われている。仏教、特に禅宗の思考によると人間は自然と宇宙と強くて結び付けているというより、むしろそれらと一体である。さらに、人間は小宇宙だと考えられているので、体の中では外の世界と同じような変化があると信じている。

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Hotaru matsuri – Yokohama, 2015.24.06  (自分で撮った写真)

3.3 季節ごとのお祭り

 日本人、特に若者は地球と宇宙や自然の大切さを忘れてくると言われているけど、だいたい毎月植物や動物に関する祭のカラフルな広告が電車にはいっぱいある。アジサイ祭り、蛍祭り、バラ祭り、朝顔祭り、菊祭りなどは順番に過ぎる。日本人が勤勉で、熱心に何かの時期を守って、かならず適当な祭りを催しているに違いない。自分の体験でもそのように感じられた。蛍祭りに行った時に非常に混んでいて、子供から大人まで暗くなる前に小川の両側に並んで、最初の蛍が見えた瞬間にで驚いて、感動の気持ちを皆同時に表した。

  1. おわりに

日本の歴史は長いし、昔から伝統はたくさん重ねて、それを守るのは大切だと分かっている。神道と仏教の考え方は日本人の毎日の生活に影響して、習慣は時代が続きながら変化しても現代まで残るのである。人生の悩みのせいで、自然からのメッセージを拒否して、情緒のない人間が増加しているかもしれないが、自然を気にする人間は少なくてもいたら、世界と調和に生きるの重要さを皆に表すことができる。

[i]  三浦康子「暮らし歳時記」http://www.i-nekko.jp/ 最終アクセス2015年7月11日

[ii] CLE SYNTHETIC LABORATORY CO.,Ltd.「CLE総合研究所」http://www.cle.co.jp/message/fourseasons/index.html 最終アクセス2015年7月11日

Nakayama Uri / Hotaru

参考文献

Suzuki S. (author), Chadwick D. (translator) (2011) Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind, Shambhala, Boston

CLE SYNTHETIC LABORATORY CO.,Ltd.「CLE総合研究所」http://www.cle.co.jp/message/fourseasons/index.html 最終アクセス2015年7月11日

小泉信夫 (1999-2009) 「自然大好き!」http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~EP3N-KIZM/index.htm#01 最終アクセス2015年7月11日

三浦康子「暮らし歳時記」http://www.i-nekko.jp/ 最終アクセス2015年7月11日